Indo-Pak War on Water

Posted on October 5, 2016

By Rameez Ali Mahesar
Since the two neibhouring nations like Pakistan and India have gained their separate independence in 1947, three wars have been fought against each other. Of which one has been fought before the Indus Water Treaty (IWT) and two of them have occurred in the years of 1965 and 1971 as well.
Now a days, for a couple days, threats from both the countries against each other have been blowing a hateful air within both of the territories. As for Pakistan, a few days before in a Pakistani Parliaments the politicians have warned India that if they attempted to deprive Pakistan of water then from us it would be considered as an act of war. Likewise, Media is obsessed with myriad news concerning Pak-India war issue globally. This issue ecumenically has become an interest within the minds of people. They are burning their midnight oil in watchinand reading Pak-Indian conflict via Miedia.The voice over conflicts now are being amplified in Electronic, Print, online and Social Media at best.
It is now an indispensible to define what is Indus Water Treaty, when, why and how it took place, what are the features of the treaty? Therefore, India in march 31, 1948, had once stoped water provision to Pakistan that which brought Pakistan towards a lot of troubles of destruction within crops. That was a perillous situation for Pakistan because absence of water the crops became prey to harm that is Pakistan’s agriculture sector on which Pakistan’s economy is dependent and while agriculture depens upn the water supply. After that the bad situation taken place in Pakistan, but after ceaseless efforts of pakistan on india to let the water flow into Pakistan, India, on the basis of some terms and conditions, did so on april 4, 1948. Then bewteen the representative from both the nations talks held but to no avail. Then World Bank interefered within talks and on World Bank’s kind endorsement, the Pakistan’s president General Ayoub Khan and India’s Jawahar lal Nehru signed a treaty was signed on september 19, 1960 in Karachi. The features and aggrement of treaty were signed are as following.
Firstly, India is not allowed to build their new dams on three rivers i.e Indus, Chenab and jhelum but they are permitted to have limitted use of water. Secondly, Pakistan was given three western rivers as Chenab, Jhelum and Indus. Thirdly, in India, the hurdles on expansion irrigation was also imposed. Fourthly, to Pakistan, provision to international financial aid for development of irrigation works and utilizing the water of western rivers was also included in the treaty. Fifthly, for 10 years India will be giving water of eastern river to pakistan and after passing of 10 years pakistan will have no right on water. Sixthly, Pakistan will build alternatives of the canals of which water was being given to eastern rivers so that it can water to the do areas. Seventhly, On building alternatives, India will pay 6 crores and 20 lakhs british pounds to Pakistan. Eighthly, Both of the nations, on flow and utilization of water, will inform eachother as well. Ninthly, There will an “Indus Water Commission be made to which Indus Water Comissioner from both territories will be deputed and they will be upper level engineers and well experts of water utilization and both of the Commissioners, according to treaty, will solve the issues.Tenthly, if the deputed Commissioners from both arenas face a condition to which they reach their failure to resolve the issues, the issues then, will be produced before International Court of Justice or other unconnected experts. [sic] But now, In some quarters’ views India is violating the agrrements signed in Indus Water Treaty (IWT).
According to article 12 (4), treaty can only be terminated if both of the countries come to agree in writing. But for a long time the talks between the nations are being held but are going failed.
But the question rises here that can India stop water to Pakistan? And India wants to have war with Pakistan only on the basis of water why? These question here are to be answered accordingly.
Water based two wars 1965 and 1971 have been fought between India and Pakistan in which India was rich in terms of weapons and a good deal of other things but Pakistan was not so. Therefore it is explicit that now both are the atomic power countries that’s why india can neither fight nor can it think so. In doing so both of the countries will be collapsed at best. Now the question is that why India makes water cause of war? It is very clear that India has now no option in any terms to fight with Pakistan except stopping water supply but in real it can not. Because it cannot terminate the treaty in which third party world bank’s W.A.B Iliff had also signed the treaty. It is now clear, according to article 12 of section 4, that India neither can stop water supply to Pakistan nor can it cancel the treaty. All the descriptions show Narender Modi’s pessimism.
Let’s take a cursory look upon the International Media and some other things. According to British and Russian Media, Pakistan, in terms of atomic technology, atomic messiles, war fighter aeroplanes, weapons and mental abilities and wise expertises, is much better than India.
On the contrast, in the words of a column published in an international magazine “Economist” that in the year of 2010, India was considered as a biggest country in the world in terms of buying the huge amount of weapons from Russia, France, Israel and America. And in the same column it is also believed that Indian defence abilities are faulty at best and the weapons are not carefully looked upon. Column also directs an Indian defence expert Ajay Shakla’s views that Indian defence system is at fault excessively.
By the contrast, a defence magazine IHS Gense, in 2014, exposed a secret report that says at least 60% of aeroplanes of Indian forces is not capable of take flight.
Accoring to same magazine, India for sixteen years is trying to provide modern aeroplanes to its airforce, but the international defence companies are not ready to fulfil the needs of India for requirng an excessive demand of modern systems and not paying an appropriate amount of cost.
Besides this, International media as comparing Pakistani and Indian forces has told that pakistani force in terms of mental capabilities is much better than Indian one. In the views of Mantra a worker as consultant agent in Indian Defence Ministry, it is opined by him that even Indian Force, in terms of number, is much more than Pakistani force but in terms of collective abilities Pakistani forces is much more better than Indian Forces as well. “In one of our our local columns it is believed that according to the Foreign media reports the heads of different forces have raised their hands(surrended to fight) and after that Narendra Modi also has shaken off from surgical strike against Pakistan. Instead of these failures in India Modi is now threatening Pakistan to terminate the Indus Water Treaty that is not possible and to stop water supply to Pakistan. The war, weither occurs or not, but it is sure that as long as Modi’s term is there, the bad situations for pakistan will be created” [sic].

M.Phil Student at Media and Communication Studies, University of Sindh, Jamshoro.
Works as a freelance columnist.
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